何謂Experiencer?

Experiencer是experience的名詞,譯作體驗家或經驗者。

傳統學說

哲學家蘇格拉底(Socrates470~399B.C.)說:「Tell me and I will forget, show me and I will remember, involve me and I will understand。」

孔子(前551-前479)《論語-為政第2.15》:「子曰:學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」。 ﹝現代語譯:「一個人只懂得倣效別人而不去獨立思考,便會迷惘不清;但只識思慮而不以行動究驗,處事便會產生疑惑,不得解決。 」﹞。

荀子(約周郝王二年313BC-秦始皇九年235BC)《儒效篇》有雲:「不聞,不若聞之;聞之,不若見之;見之,不若知之;知之,不若行之。」。 (譯文:未聞不如耳聞,耳聞不如目睹,目睹不如心領神悟,心領神悟不如身體力行。)

杜威及其教育哲學思想

Experience(Reality) is the "sum total" of transactions of human beings with their environment and with one another. Collective experience is identical with culture (or tradition). Experience means more than sensation and passive looking. It includes both active and passive dimensions (with give and take). It involves thought, feeling, doing, undergoing, working -- any sort of human involvement with the world. Moreover, experience is not a strictly internal and private. Experience includes what is experienced and the way it is experienced. Experiencer and experienced are joined together in a continuum. It is reflection and imagination and feeling about these things. Experience is an inclusive word that goes beyond "me" and "mine" to a whole situation in which I am a functioning part.

何謂歷奇為本輔導? 

歷奇為本輔導(Adventure Based Counseling-ABC)起源於美國,倡導者為歷奇計劃(Project Adventure)內的教育工作者,他們大多曾參與美國外展學校的訓練工作,歷奇為本輔導是匯合歷奇訓練(Adventure Training)、經驗學習法(Experiential Learning)、野外環境(Wilderness Environment)和小組及個人輔導技巧(Group and Individual Counseling)整合去協助受眾提高自信心、自尊感、自我價值、改善人際溝通技巧、團隊合作精神、解決問題技巧及個人突破障礙等等,從而提升個人概念(self Concept) 。

何謂經驗學習法?

美國哲學家及教育家杜威(John Dewey)提出主張「Learning by Doing 」,認為「直接、具體的實際經驗才是真正學習的過程」。 透過「從實踐中學習」(Learning by Doing)演化成「經驗學習法」(Experiential Learning),主要是指透過實踐及反省而達致學習。這個教育模式設積極參與問題解決的歷程會帶來最佳學習效果。此外,這也是一個師生、主題及環境間的互動過程,協調教學內容及過程的同等重要,並相信每一次的教學歷程,均是師生共同學習機會。

所謂的「經驗學習法」(Experiential Learning),其主要的教育哲學及理論架構是整合自教育家杜威(John Dewey)的「做中學learning by doing」、社會心理學家黎溫(Kurt Lewin)的「經驗學習圈experiential learning cycle」、認知心理學家皮亞傑(Jean Piaget)的「認知發展論theory of cognitive development」以及大衛科伯(David Kolb)等其他學者理論而形成此學習架構。並強調「經驗學習圈」(The Experiential Learning Cycle)、「全方位價值契約」(Full Value Contract)、「自主性挑戰」(Challenge by Choice)、高峰經驗(peakexperience)、心理輔導﹝Psychological Counselling ﹞等信念及技巧。

按:香港歷奇在教育學制的發展



 Last Updated: 星期三, 10 二月, 2016